1. From philosophy, answers free will question with “Nope”. We are not free to make our own choices; by prior circumstance our available options are limited, and our decision is based on the same prior history. In particular see hard determinism and soft determinism.
  2. From probability theory in mathematics, determinism is the opposite of probabilistic. Esp. in regards to applied mathematics and similar mathematical modelling problems, as of the last century probabilistic interpretations of the world are gaining popularity.
    Deterministic models are the usual math: y=x+2 has fixed domains and ranges. Anyone schooled in the math will know how to find them. Probabilistic models, on the other hand, incorporate uncertainty. Thanks to probability theory, we know how some uncertainties behave and we can predict them. (Examples: flipping coins, dice, chicks’ phone numbers.)
    Here, see quantum-adjusted determinism.

    See also